Battle of Preston 1648

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A victory for Cromwell’s New Model Army over the Royalists and Scots in the Second Civil War. The battle was fought over two days, mostly at Walton-le-Dale, south of Preston. The present day bridge on the River Ribble is about 50 yards upstream from the old bridge where much of the fighting took place, chiefly in the lanes leading from the high ground to the river.

Lancaster Castle  

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Held by Parliamentary forces in the Civil War it was unsuccessfully besieged by the Royalists

Battle of Nantwich 1644

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Scene of a decisive Parliamentarian victory in the Civil War. The Royalist siege of Nantwich was relieved by Sir Thomas Fairfax’s Parliamentarian army on 25th January 1644. The pasture land on the site today has changed little except for the addition of the Shropshire Union Canal, whose towpath provides an access route through the battlefield. Annual re-enactments by the Sealed Knot Society.

Beeston Castle, Cheshire.

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Twice besieged in the Civil War then partially demolished, the ruins became a popular visitor attraction. Features include a castle history exhibition and wildlife trails in the surrounding woodland park

Battles of Powick Bridge 1642 and Worcester 1651 

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The final battle of the Civil Wars took place close by the site of the wars' earliest skirmish in 1642, when Prince Rupert's cavalry fought off a smaller Parliamentarian force at Powick Bridge. In 1651 a largely Scottish army led by Charles II was defeated by the New Model Army under Cromwell and Charles was forced into exile. Much of the battlefield remains open land, and a Civil War Trail links key sites including the Civil War Museum at the Commandery and Fort Royal, a Royalist artillery fort.

Seiges of Lichfield 1642-44

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Lichfield Cathedral close was besieged and taken three times in the English Civil War. After initally declaring for the King, a parliamentary force took the Cathedral in March 1643, Prince Rupert took it back a month later using a mine and in 1646 a Parliamentary force bombaded the cathedral.  The remains of the siege battery posiitons are preserved, and interpretation boards and  a museum in a local pub tell the story. 

Conwy Castle 1646

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In the Civil War it was Royalist held and held until it fewll after a siege lasting from August to  November  1646. In 1655 the castle was 'slighted' by Parliament, with the foirtifications being put beyond,military use. with the fortifications . Later it fell into ruins but was restored from the 19th century on.

Harlech Castle

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In the Civil War it was the last Royalist fortification to surrender. Ruined but with many walls intact.

CaernarfonCastle

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During the Civil War it was held by the Royalists and besieged three times.

Battle of St Fagans 1646

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This was a battle between a largely untrained army of former Parliamentarians turned Royalists under Rowland Laugharne and a detachment of the New Model Army under Colonel Thomas Horton in 1648. Both marched on Cardiff and met at St Fagans, west of the city, where a Royalist attack was quickly repulsed by the superior Parliamentarian army. Laugharne and the remains of his force fled to Pembroke Castle, there to endure an eight week siege. Visitors to the National History Museum at St Fagans can walk the battlefield though it is much changed in appearance.

Battle of Montgomery 1644

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The largest battle of the Civil Wars to be fought in Wales, Montgomery was a major victory for Parliament. A Royalist army under Lord John Byron was besieging Montgomery Castle when a Parliamentarian force under Sir John Meldrum arrived in order to raise the siege. The Royalists were routed and never again mustered a field army in North Wales. The action took place just north of the castle, close to the River Camladd and Offa's Dyke on 18th September 1644. 

Langport Battlefield 1645

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The last Royalist field army under General George Goring was heading for Bridgwater when attacked by a Parliamentarian force at the Wagg Rhyne stream near Langport on .10 July 1645 The Royalists broke under the Parliamentarian cavalry charges and fled. Langport and Bridgwater fell soon after. The battlefield now consists of fields crossed by a railway and a road running across the Wagg Bridge which was at the centre of the fighting.

Battle of Tippermuir 1644

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The first of the battles which the Marquis of Montrose fought for King Charles I against the Covenanter army in the Civil Wars. The battle took place three miles west of Perth near the village of Tibbermore on 1st September 1644. Montrose's victory, despite being outnumbered and lacking cavalry and artillery, was a major boost to the Royalist cause. The battlefield consists of flat arable land and is little developed, though there is no monument on the site

Battlefield of Auldearn 1645

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A major victory for the Marquis of Montrose's Royalist forces over the Covenanter army (allied with the English Parliamentarians) during the Civil Wars.on 9 May 1645.  The fourth battle of the campaign, it sealed Montrose's reputation as a brilliant commander, inflicting a crushing defeat on Sir John Hurry's larger army. One of the last battles in Europe to see significant use of bowmen. The battlefield is signposted and there is an interpretation panel on top of Dooket Hill, a vantage point used by Montrose at the outset of the battle. Auldearn church has memorials to the fallen.

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Stratton Battlefield 1643

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Despite superior numbers and holding a hilltop position near Stratton, the Earl of Stamford’s Parliamentarian army was attacked and overcome by Sir Ralph Hopton’s Royalist force. Stamford lost half his army and left the way to Devon open for Hopton. Though houses have been built on the top of the hill, much of the slopes are undeveloped and defensive earthworks used by the Parliamentarians can still be seen, with access via footpaths and lanes. 

Sedgemoor Battlefield 1685

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The last pitched battle fought on English soil and the last chapter of the Duke of Monmouth’s attempt to seize the crown from James II. Faced with a smaller but more experienced royal army, the rebels made a botched night attack but at daybreak the king’s troops advanced and destroyed the rebel army. Monmouth was captured three days later and executed. The marshland of the battlefield has been drained but otherwise little changed. A Pitchfork Rebellion Trail is displayed at Chedzoy church.

Lostwithiel Battlefield 1644

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The last major victory for the Royalists in the First Civil War. The Earl of Essex’s Parliamentarian force, attempting to take Cornwall, was pursued by a larger army led by King Charles and surrounded at Lostwithiel, above the port of Fowey. While the Parliamentarian cavalry broke through and escaped, the infantry and artillery surrendered to the King. Fighting took place over ten days on two main sites close to Restormel Castle and Castle Dore. These have only recently been identified with the help of archaeological work and have now been registered by English Heritage. 

Battle of Braddock Down 1643

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A swift victory for Sir Ralph Hopton’s Royalist army on 19th January 1643. Faced by a Parliamentarian force advancing from Devon under Colonel Ruthin, the Royalists charged and overwhelmed them, taking large numbers of prisoners and securing Cornwall for the King. There is some dispute as to the site of the battle. The English Heritage registered site is at Braddock Down, now divided into fields with limited access. The alternative site favoured by some historians lies partly in the parkland at Boconnoc.

Chalgrove 1643

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This was one of a number of small scale actions between Essex's army and the Oxford royalist forces that followed the fall of Reading.  Prince Rupert initiated a raid on parliamentarian billets around Thame. Rupert was highly successful in disordering two parliamentarian quarters at Postcombe and Chinnor, capturing or killing 170 enemy troops and easily outwitting and out manoeuvring his enemies at Chalgrove on18 June 1643.

. The importance of Chalgrove is political n the loss of Colonel John Hampden, a key political figure on the parliamentarian side.  There is a footpath that leads across the battlefield.

Battle of Roundway Down 1643 

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The Battle of Roundway Down was fought on 13 July 1643, during the First English Civil War. A Royalist cavalry force under Lord Wilmot won a crushing victory over the Parliamentarians under Sir William Waller who were besieging Devizes in central Wiltshire, which was defended by Lord Hopton. It is on the English Heritage Battlefield Register

Battle of Alton 1643

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The Battle of Alton of the First English Civil War, took place in the town of Alton, Hampshire on 13 December 1643, There, Parliamentary forces serving under Sir William Waller led a successful surprise attack on a winter garrison of Royalist infantry and cavalry serving under the Earl of Crawford.[3] In the context of the First English Civil War, the Battle of Alton was the first decisive defeat of Sir Ralph Hopton, leader of Royalist forces in the south

Battle of Cheriton 1644

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The Battle of Cheriton was an important Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War on .29 March 1644. It  resulted in the defeat of a Royalist army, which threw King Charles I onto the defensive for the remainder of the year. t is on the English Heritage Battlefield Register 

Siege of Basing House 1643-45

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The siege of Basing House near Basingstoke in Hampshire, was a Parliamentarian victory late in the First English Civil War. There were three major engagements. John Paulet, 5th Marquis of Winchester owned the house and as a committed Royalist garrisoned it in support of King Charles I, as it commanded the road from London to the west through Salisbury.  After attempts in 1643 and 1644 the house tell to the Parliamentarians on 14 October 1645

Battles of Brentford and Turnham Green 1642

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These battles, early in the Civil War, represent a defining moment in the development of democracy in England. They were the closest the royalists ever came to taking London, which would have won them the war. The king's duplicity before the battle of Brentford also made many in parliament realise that he would not negotiate a peaceful settlement and that conflict was unavoidable.

Newburn Ford Battlefield 1640

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The only battle of the Second Bishops' War, in 1640, provoked by King Charles I’s imposition of a new prayer book on Scotland. A Scots army crossed theTyne to attack the King’s forces from the south and forced them to retreat, thereby capturing Newcastle. The cost of raising the army and then paying off the Scots caused King Charles to call the Long Parliament. The site has been much industrialised but there is an info9rmation centre and interpretation panels near Newburn Bridge which give a good view of the battle area.

Helmsley Castle Siege 1644

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During the English Civil War, the castle was besieged by Sir Thomas Fairfax in 1644. Sir Jordan Crosland held it for the king for three months before surrendering. Parliament ordered the castle to be slighted to prevent its further use and much of the walls, gates and part of the east tower were destroyed.

Battle of Adwalton Moor 1643

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The Earl of Newcastle, the Royalist Commander, defeated  Fairfax in command of the Parliamentarian forces on 30th June 1643..  The battle was of medium term significance, consolidating Royalist control of Yorkshire.  It is listed by English Heritage as a Registered Battlefield.  The community run library has some information and there are interpretation panels on marker stones.   .

Battle of Marston Moor 1644

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The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646. The combined forces of the English Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax and the Earl of Manchester and the Scottish Covenanters under the Earl of Leven defeated the Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the Marquess of Newcastle. After their defeat the Royalists effectively abandoned the north of England.  It is listed by English Heritage as a Registered Battlefield.

Battle of Wincby 1643 

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The Battle of Winceby took place on 11 October 1643 during the English Civil War near the village of Winceby, Lincolnshire about 4 miles (6 km) east of Horncastle. It is listed by English Heritage as a Registered Battlefield.A Parliamnetarian force under Fairfax defeated a Royalist one seeking to besiege Kingston on Hull.  This was the first battle in which Oliver Cromwell distinguished himself as a commander..

Naseby 1645

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Naseby is one of the most decisive battles in British History.  It was here that the parliamentary forces defeated those of King Char;les in 1645. It is a registered nbattlefield and supported by information panels. The local Battle of Naseby project are planning to establish a visitor centre.

Siege of Newark 1645

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Newark endured three sieges during the English Civil War. The town was important as two major roads ran through it.. Control of Newark was vital to the Royalists as it connected their headquarters in Oxford to Royalist centres in the north-east. Newark suffered its first short-lived siege between February 27th and 28th 1643. The second siege lasted longer from February 29th to March 21st 1644 while the third siege lasted from November 26th 1645 to May 8th 1646.  It is possible to see traces of one of the basions and the town is the home to the national English Civil War Centre.

Cropredy Bridge 1644

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n an opportunistic strike, Sir William Waller struck a royalist army strung out in line of march on 29 June 1644 . The battle extended over several miles, involving several crossings of the river and extending across to the Northamptonshire border. After the Parliamentarian attack was repulsed Waller became demoralised allowing the King restore Royalist fortues. The area remains almost wholly undeveloped. There are information boards and a walking trail linking Cropredy Brodge with Edgecote and Edgejhill

Edgehill 23 Oct 1642

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The battle of Edgehill was the first major action of the Civil War in England. It was intended to be the one great battle to decide the war. Although often viewed as an indecisive battle, in effect a bloody draw, the king actually gained an important advantage. There are some interpretation panels and an information hub is to be opened in a local church. The battlefield is best visited after some prior research or with a guide. There is a walking trail linking Edgehill with Cropredy Bridge and Edgecote.

Battle of Maidstone 1648

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The Battle of Maidstone was fought in the Second English Civil War and was a victory for the attacking parliamentarian troops over the defending Royalist forces.  Several buildings have surived and can be interpreted with a guide.

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