Battle of Tuthill 1401

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Fought outside Caernarfon during the revolt of Owain Glyndwr, following his siege of the town and castle with its English garrison. Significant chiefly as the first occasion on which Glyndwr flew his flag bearing a golden dragon on a white field. Little is known about the battle which appears to have been inconclusive.

Caernarfon Castle Sacked 1294 and Siege 1401

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Sacked in the rebellion of 1294 led by Madog ap Llywelyn. In 1401 the castle was besieged during the Glyndwr Rising and the Battle of Tuthill was fought nearby. During the Civil War it was held by the Royalists and besieged three times.

Harlech Castle siege 1294-5 and 1404

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Harlech resisted the siege by Madog ap Lywelyn in 1294-5 but was taken by Owain Glyndwr in 1404 and used as his headquarters until retaken by the English in 1409.

Conwy Castle 1294-5

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Built in the 1280s along with the town walls, its rectangular shape mirrors that of the rock it sits on, with eight towers and two barbicans. It withstood Madog ap Llywelyn's siege in 1294-5

Castell y Bere besieged 1282 and 1284

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Built by Llywelyn the Great in the 1220s to secure and defend the south west of Gwynedd. In 1282 it was taken by English forces under Edward I who expanded the castle. During Madog ap Llywelyn's revolt in 1294 the castle was besieged and burned. Never repaired, it fell into ruins.

Dryslwyn Castle Siege 1287

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Built by the princes of Deheubarth, probably in the 1220s, it was much expanded later that century and was one of the last castles to remain in Welsh hands, under Rhys ap Maredudd. When he rebelled against the English in 1287, the castle was besieged and taken by Edward I's forces

Laugharne Castle 1403

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Laugharne was a turning point in Owain Glyndwr's rebellion where he was tricked into an ambush and lost 700 men, after which he retreated and the revolt petered out ,

Criccieth Castle sieges 1283 and 1404

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Sitting on a headland overlooking Tremadog Bay, Criccieth Castle was originally built by Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great in the 1230s. The twin towered gateway is believed to date from this era, but when the English captured Criccieth in 1283, they added a storey to the gatehouse and built a new rectangular tower. In 1404 it fell to the forces of Owain Glyndwr who tore down the walls and set fire to the castle. Scorch marks can still be seen on some of the ruins. Visitor displays give information on Welsh castles and on the medieval chronicler Gerald of Wales. 

Bannockburn Battlefield  1314

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A decisive battle in the Scottish Wars of Independence and an iconic Scottish victory. Over two days in 1314 Robert the Bruce defeated Edward II's larger English Army which had come to relieve Stirling Castle. Edward was forced to flee and Bruce gained control of Scotland. The Heritage Centre at the battlefield was rebuilt ahead of the 700th anniversary and reopened in March 2014. A monument and a statue of Robert the Bruce stand near the site of the first day's battle; the location of the second day's action is a matter of dispute.

Falkirk Battlefield 1297

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In response to the English defeat at Stirling Bridge, Edward I raised a new army to invade Scotland in 1298. A Scots Army led by William Wallace and consisting largely of spearmen, was attacked first by the English cavalry and then by longbowmen. The hail of arrows was decisive and the Scots were overwhelmed. The site of the battle is disputed but is most likely to the south of Callendar Wood.

Stirling Battlefield 1297

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Sterling Bridge was a key Scottish victory in the Wars of Independence. Scots forces led by Andrew Moray and William Wallace swept down on the English troops that had just crossed the narrow bridge at Stirling and inflicted a heavy defeat upon them. The medieval wooden bridge stood just upstream from the existing stone bridge. Much of the battlefield has been built over,  but there is some open ground close to the bridge. The Wallace Monument upon Abbey Craig at the northern end of the bridge, contains displays about the life of Wallace.

Myton Battlefield 1319

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The Battle of Myton, 20 September 1319, nicknamed the Chapter of Myton or The White Battle because of the number of clergy involved, was a major engagement in the First Scottish War of Independence, fought in Yorkshire. It was a victory for the Scots over the English It is listed by English Heritage as a Registered Battlefield.

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Shrewsbury Battlefield 1403

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In 1399, Henry Bolingbroke, with the assistance of the powerful Earl of Northumberland, Henry Percy and his family, usurped the throne of England from his cousin Richard II to become King Henry IV. When Henry demanded all the ransom money from the battle of Homildon Hill and refused to pay monies owed to the Percys for their campaigning in Wales, their relationship rapidly deteriorated. The Percys formed an alliance with Owain Glendower and Edward Mortimer and an army led by Henry ‘Harry Hotspur’ Percy marched on the King. The King marched north with his son Prince Hal (later Henry V) to meet them. The two sides clashed at Shrewsburywhich  ended with the death of ‘Hotspur’ and a large number of his supporters. The battle was the first time that longbow was pitted against longbow on English soil.

Nevilles Cross Battlefield 1346

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The Scots attacked England at the request of King Phillip of France, following his defeat by the English at Crecy in 1346. Camped near Durham, the Scots were attacked by Edward III’s army. Outnumbered and outflanked the Scots army gave way and King David II of Scotland was captured. The eastern part of the battlefield has been built over but the western part remains undeveloped and accessible.

Battle of Otterburn 1388

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A Scots force under James, Earl of Douglas, raided Northumberland in 1388. Returning they were attacked at Otterburn by Henry Percy (Henry Hotspur)'s English army. The Scots eventually prevailed and Hotspur was captured but Douglas was killed. The character of the battlefield is well preserved, and features a monument and interpretive panels with a public right of way through the middle of the site.

Siege of Bothwell Castle 1301 and 1337

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Built in the 13th century this now ruined castle was much contested in the Wars of Independence. It was several times besieged, most famously by Edward I in the great siege of 1301 using a siege engine called 'le berefrey'. Edward prevailed but the Scots retook Bothwell after Bannockburn. Following the last recorded siege in 1337 the castle's great tower, or donjon, was split in half but what remains is still impressive. It overlooks the River Clyde in South Lanarkshire.

Battle of Dunbar 1296

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An English victory, the battle of Dunbar was the first major battle of the First Scottish War of Independence. For a brief while it put an end to organised Scots resistance and gave effective control of Scotland to Edward I. The battle, a brief but decisive clash between mounted knights, took place to the south west of the  besieged Dunbar Castle. The battlefield, mostly agricultural land, has seen little modern development but there is no on-site memorial.

Boroughbridge Battlefield 1322

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The Battle of Boroughbridge was fought between a group of rebellious barons and King Edward II of England, near Boroughbridge, north-west of York on 16 March 1322.. The culmination of a long period of antagonism between the king and Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, his most powerful subject, it resulted in Lancaster's defeat and execution. This allowed Edward to re-establish royal authority, and hold on to power for another five years. Not in itself a part of the Wars of Scottish Independence, the battle is significant for its employment of tactics learned in the Scottish wars in a domestic English conflict. Both the extensive use of foot soldiers rather than cavalry, and the heavy impact caused by the longbow, represented significant steps in military developments. It is listed by English Heritage as a Registered Battlefield.

Homildon Hill Battlefield 1402

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In 1402 a Scots army pushed as far south as Newcastle but found its retreat blocked by an English force under the Earl of Northumberland and his son Henry Percy (aka Henry Hotspur). The English archers once more showed their superiority and won the day. The site is now known as Humbleton Hill but the landscape is not much changed, with access to the English and the Scots’ positions.

Halidon Hill battlefield 1333

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Sparked by the Scots’ attempt in 1333 to relieve Berwick, then besieged by an English force under Edward III. Notable for the successful deployment of archers by the English, a tactic later replicated in their battles with the French. The English pushed the Scots back and went on to capture Berwick. A circular walk around the hill gives access to the English positions.

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